Science and research

GcMAF is backed by many independent scientific and academic research papers for both animals and humans.

GcMAF scientific research and trials

Over the past decade there have been over 150 official academic research papers published by more than 300 scientists on GcMAF. Although it is certainly not something we morally agree with, many of these studies were conducted using animals such as hamsters and mice. These demonstrated that not only does GcMAF help a wide range of issues including cancers, tumors, infections, inflammatory conditions and autoimmune diseases – but that the same GcMAF was effective and compatible across a range of different vertebrate animal species as well as humans. Along with other independent studies and private trials specifically conducted on animals, it is clearly evident there is immense potential for this relatively new immunotherapy approach for animals.

View all GcMAF studies at the US National Library of Medicine’s PubMed website click here.

Efranet GcMAF canine trial

In 2015 an Israeli company conducted an extensive trial into the use of GcMAF on canine cancer. The image below is a screenshot from their website which is now offline, outlining this trial and the results. A cached version of their website can be found here.

Note: EF-022 therapy mentioned in this trial is an alternate name given to GcMAF by Efranet as shown in this study.

Studies involving use on animals

Cancer cell-killing by macrophages treated with Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF)

View study here

“Stepwise treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized β-galactosidase and sialidase generates the most potent macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) ever discovered which produces no side effect in humans and animals.”

“We demonstrated rapid in vitro cancer cell-killing using mouse and human macrophages activated by GcMAF. “

A Novel Role for a Major Component of the Vitamin D Axis: Vitamin D Study 4: Binding Protein-Derived Macrophage Activating Factor Induces Human Breast Cancer Cell Apoptosis through Stimulation of Macrophages

View study here

“Ehrlich tumor bearing mice, prostate or breast cancer patients, greatly accelerated cell-killings were observed, indicating that sera of GcMAF treated tumor-bearing mice and cancer patients contain IgG antibodies against these cancer cells because inflammation (or GcMAF)-primed activation of macrophages is known to develop Fc-receptor mediated cell-killing and phagocytosis of targets preferentially.”

Effect of the Gc-derived macrophage-activating factor precursor (preGcMAF) on phagocytic activation of mouse peritoneal macrophages

View study here

“We also found that preGc(1f1f)MAF significantly enhanced phagocytic activity in mouse peritoneal macrophages but only in the presence of the mouse peritoneal fluid; the level of phagocytic activity was the same as that observed for GcMAF.”

Antitumor effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice

View study here

“A single administration of GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) to eight mice on the same day after transplantation of the tumor (5 x 10(5) cells) showed a mean survival time of 21 +/- 3 days for seven mice, with one mouse surviving more than 60 days, whereas tumor-bearing controls had a mean survival time of 13 +/- 2 days.”

Effects of Vitamin D3-Binding Protein-Derived Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF) on Angiogenesis

View study here

This study showed human-derived (bioidentical) GcMAF able to activate tumoricidal macrophages against a variety of cancers sampled from mice cells.

Inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis and its derived carcinoma cell line

View study here

“DMBA application induced squamous cell carcinoma in all 15 hamsters of the control group at approximately 10 weeks, and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden within 20 weeks. By contrast, 2 out of the 14 hamsters with GcMAF administration did not develop tumors and the remaining 12 hamsters showed a significant delay of tumor development for approximately 3.5 weeks.”

Other GcMAF scientific & medical research

This list below is directly taken from the official US Library of Medicine (PubMed website) searching for GcMAF related studies.

  • 1
    Hamilton G, Rath B, Klameth L, Hochmair MJ. Small cell lung cancer: Recruitment of macrophages by circulating tumor cells. Oncoimmunology. 2015 Oct 29;5(3):e1093277. eCollection 2016 Mar. PubMed PMID: 27141354; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4839345.
  • 2
    Delanghe JR, Speeckaert R, Speeckaert MM. Behind the scenes of vitamin D binding protein: more than vitamin D binding. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Oct;29(5):773-86. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2015.06.006. Epub 2015 Jul 2. Review. PubMed PMID: 26522461.
  • 3
    Inui T, Kubo K, Kuchiike D, Uto Y, Nishikata T, Sakamoto N, Mette M. Oral Colostrum Macrophage-activating Factor for Serious Infection and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Three Case Reports. Anticancer Res. 2015 Aug;35(8):4545-9. PubMed PMID: 26168499.
  • 4
    Uto Y, Kawai T, Sasaki T, Hamada K, Yamada H, Kuchiike D, Kubo K, Inui T, Mette M, Tokunaga K, Hayakawa A, Go A, Oosaki T. Degalactosylated/Desialylated Bovine Colostrum Induces Macrophage Phagocytic Activity Independently of Inflammatory Cytokine Production. Anticancer Res. 2015 Aug;35(8):4487-92. PubMed PMID: 26168491.
  • 5
    Branca JJ, Morucci G, Malentacchi F, Gelmini S, Ruggiero M, Pacini S. Effects of oxaliplatin and oleic acid Gc-protein-derived macrophage-activating factor on murine and human microglia. J Neurosci Res. 2015 Sep;93(9):1364-77. doi: 10.1002/jnr.23588. Epub 2015 Mar 18. PubMed PMID: 25782915.
  • 6
    Morucci G, Branca JJ, Gulisano M, Ruggiero M, Paternostro F, Pacini A, Di Cesare Mannelli L, Pacini S. Gc-protein-derived macrophage activating factor counteracts the neuronal damage induced by oxaliplatin. Anticancer Drugs. 2015 Feb;26(2):197-209. doi: 10.1097/CAD.0000000000000177. PubMed PMID: 25304987.
  • 7
    Immunotherapy of metastatic colorectal cancer with vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor, GcMAF. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2014 Dec;63(12):1349.
  • 8
    ‘Immunotherapy of metastatic breast cancer patients with vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF)’ by Yamamoto, N., Suyama, H., Yamamoto, N. and Ushijima, N. Int J Cancer. 2014 Sep 15;135(6):1509. PubMed PMID: 25180398.
  • 9
    Inui T, Makita K, Miura H, Matsuda A, Kuchiike D, Kubo K, Mette M, Uto Y, Nishikata T, Hori H, Sakamoto N. Case report: A breast cancer patient treated with GcMAF, sonodynamic therapy and hormone therapy. Anticancer Res. 2014 Aug;34(8):4589-93. Erratum in: Anticancer Res. 2015 Apr;35(4):2477. PubMed PMID: 25075104.
  • 10
    Ishikawa M, Inoue T, Inui T, Kuchiike D, Kubo K, Uto Y, Nishikata T. A novel assay system for macrophage-activating factor activity using a human U937 cell line. Anticancer Res. 2014 Aug;34(8):4577-81. PubMed PMID: 25075102.
  • 11
    Ruggiero M, Ward E, Smith R, Branca JJ, Noakes D, Morucci G, Taubmann M, Thyer L, Pacini S. Oleic Acid, deglycosylated vitamin D-binding protein, nitricoxide: a molecular triad made lethal to cancer. Anticancer Res. 2014 Jul;34(7):3569-78. PubMed PMID: 24982371.
  • 12
    Siniscalco D, Bradstreet JJ, Cirillo A, Antonucci N. The in vitro GcMAF effects on endocannabinoid system transcriptionomics, receptor formation, and cell activity of autism-derived macrophages. J Neuroinflammation. 2014 Apr 17;11:78. doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-11-78. PubMed PMID: 24739187; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3996516.
  • 13
    Ikeda T, Kasai M, Tatsukawa E, Kamitakahara M, Shibata Y, Yokoi T, Nemoto TK, Ioku K. A bone substitute with high affinity for vitamin D-binding protein–relationship with niche of osteoclasts. J Cell Mol Med. 2014 Jan;18(1):170-80. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.12180. Epub 2013 Nov 28. PubMed PMID: 24286277; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3916128.
  • 14
    Thyer L, Ward E, Smith R, Branca JJ, Morucci G, Gulisano M, Noakes D, Eslinger R, Pacini S. GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor decreases α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase levels in advanced cancer patients. Oncoimmunology.
  • 15
    2013 Aug 1;2(8):e25769. Epub 2013 Jul 29. PubMed PMID: 24179708; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3812199.
  • 16
    Sayegh L, Fuleihan Gel-H, Nassar AH. Vitamin D in endometriosis: a causative or confounding factor? Metabolism. 2014 Jan;63(1):32-41. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2013.09.012. Epub 2013 Oct 14. Review. PubMed PMID: 24135500.